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Why You Should Care About Soil Contamination If You're Starting a Garden in Your Backyard

Here's the dirt-y details you're going to want to know and what to do about it

Dreary winter blues might have you dreaming of blue skies, warm weather and some home grown vegetables. But before you go jetting off to your nearest Home Depot or nursery, you might want to take a second and get to know your soil. We're serious! No, not the hello, my name is ____, more like the hey, what's in my soil? Not all soils are created equally and trust us when we say that you'll definitely want to make sure the soil you're using for growing food to eat is top notch!

Why should I care about my soil?

Believe it or not, the soil that you use matters! Soil in older neighborhoods tend to contain higher levels of lead since those houses were built before the ban of lead paint in 1978 (1). Most soil in urban areas also have residual lead from the days of leaded gasoline (don't worry, that has since been banned too!) (8). One of the concerns with heavy metals, especially lead, is that your vegetables can take in some of the metal during the growing process (1). You're probably getting the picture just from these two examples. BUT if you take away nothing else, here is the most important thing to know - a study by the University of Washington found that the benefits of urban gardening definitely outweigh any of the potential worries. This definitely doesn't mean that you can't take steps to make sure that you reap all the benefits and none of the yucky toxic chemicals (3).


What might be in my soil?

The biggest concern by far in soil used for home gardening is heavy metals, particularly lead, cadmium and arsenic (1). Heavy metals are concerning because while they do not have immediate effects, the buildup of these metals in your body can result in negative health effects over time. For instance, lead can slow down child brain and motor development, while cadmium buildup can result in kidney and lung damage (4). Children, pregnant women and individuals with health conditions are most vulnerable to heavy metals (4). Particulate matter (a.k.a. the different chemicals that float around in the air and blow around in the wind from things like car exhaust) can also build up on the surface of your produce (5). This is often why vegetables that are grown near a busy road have higher levels of heavy metals because of dirt and dust getting kicked up into the air and mixing with your soil (2).


What can I do to reduce the chance my vegetables will be contaminated?

  • Get you soil tested if you can. This is especially important if you live in an older neighborhood as the chance of lead buildup in the soil is greater (1, 6). Testing generally costs between $10-20 and this is good not only to test for toxic compounds, but can help you know which crops to grow or how to amend your soil. Most land-grant universities in your state can test your soil for you, check here to see where the nearest university is to you.
  • Bring in new safe topsoil and create raised beds - 6 to 12 inches of additional topsoil is recommended. Purchase soil that is Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) certified to guarantee the lowest lead levels in soil available for commercial purchase (7). Hey bonus, no more bending your back alllllll the way to the ground!
  • If you're not sure, stay away from growing root vegetables and leafy greens as they absorb heavy metals more easily through the soil (5). Stick to growing vegetables like tomatoes, zucchini and beans which take in less heavy metals (5).
  • Double or even triple wash all your produce before using to make sure all the yucky particulate matter and heavy metals in the soil are rinsed out (5).
  • Don't forget to wash your hands after working in the garden! This will make sure that you don't ingest any contaminated soil when you're enjoying your fresh grown veggies.

Basically, don't let the worries of home gardening stop you from growing your own fresh vegetables! Even though there are some concerns, just by paying close attention to the type of soil you have and carefully choosing which vegetables to grow, you'll be A-okay!

References

  1. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114004692)
  2. (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13593-015-0308-z)
  3. (https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/45/1/26?access=0&view;=pdf)
  4. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/PHS/PHS.asp?id=46&tid;=15
  5. https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-02/uow-rol020216.php
  6. https://gardencollage.com/wander/gardens-parks/get-the-lead-out-how-to-test-your-soil-for-contaminants/
  7. https://www.sfdph.org/dph/files/EHSdocs/ehsCEHPdocs/Lead/LeadHazardUrbanGardening.pdf
  8. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=34&po;=5
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No matter where you live, sustainability is becoming a hot topic. It might be a friendly reminder sign to bring your reusable bag to the grocery store, a city government conversation about not using straws, or it could run as deep as cities committing to be zero waste - some as early as next year. With all of this comes the question of what sort of products are best for the world? Is biodegradable really any different from compostable. Should I opt for compostable options over recyclable ones? Does reusing things help?

All of these are great questions! And the answer to all of them has an impact on our planet, and oftentimes our health, too.

So, first of all, what do all of these different terms that are being thrown around really mean? Let's start with the one we probably have all heard the most: recyclable.

Recyclable

Recycling is the process of taking a product and breaking it down to use it again, often as a raw material. We all know that we can recycle paper, plastic, and cans. In most places, recycling facilities can also deal with glass. All of this is great, but let's break down the concept a little bit more. Quick note, each city is slightly different and you should check exactly what can and can't be recycled in your neighborhood before you just assume you are good to go.

Tossing something you think or hope can be recycled into the recycling bin is often called wishful or aspirational recycling. While your heart is in the right place, doing this might actually be worse than just trashing something you aren't clear on. Why? Because that one iffy thing can actually be enough to compromise a full batch of recycling, which could mean everything ends up in the landfill instead of just the one questionable item. In those situations, the best option would be to confirm before you dispose of it. And, if your neighborhood doesn't recycle it, ask your city to start accepting those items. But, in the meantime, if you don't know, don't just hope it can be recycled.

Back to the topic at hand, what is actually recyclable? Most plastics that hold their shape can be recycled (like water bottles, food containers, bottles for household items, etc.). In some places, they have even started being able to accept items like plastic grocery bags, shrink wrap, and plastic wrap if it is packaged correctly. Other commonly accepted items for recycling include paper, cardboard, unbroken glass and metal (including tinfoil if it's clean and in a large enough ball).

Some common items that need special recycling (but are in fact recyclable) include: batteries, electronics, and fabric (and clothing). Check with your waste management provider to see what can and can't be recycled in your neighborhood.

Compostable

This is becoming more common in larger metropolitan cities. Composting is a way to turn items made of natural materials back into a nutrient rich soil. Often times the compost is for food scraps, but other items that are fully compostable include yard scraps, dead flowers, items made of untreated wood, and those made of pure cotton. While starting with food scraps is the easiest, the more you look around the more you will find items for other parts of your life that are completely compostable.

Compostable items are great because instead of going to landfill or needing to be processed and turned into something else, they actually breakdown themselves in a natural setting (or in an industrial facility) to create something useful right away.

But, what happens if you have items that are compostable but don't have access to composting. Side note: you can create a compost pile in your own backyard (or under your sink). We know that isn't for everyone though. So, what happens if these items end up in just in your standard trash bin? You might think that it's still an improvement and they will break down, right? Sorry to be the bearer of bad news, but that's not exactly the case. Compostable items break down into nutrient rich soil only if they have the right conditions. And a traditional landfill is not a place with the right conditions.

Industrial facilities have the optimal conditions for composting. These facilities regulate temperature, moisture, and air flow in order to ensure a compostable item breaks down as fast as possible. At-home compost is more prone to temperature/moisture/air flow changes and might not break down as quickly as it would in an industrial setting.

Composting works best when the items have access to oxygen and are regularly being turned over. A landfill is basically the opposite. It's an anaerobic environment where most of the pile actually doesn't have access to oxygen. That means that if your compostable takeout container ends up in the landfill, it won't break down as intended. Instead, it will mostly likely just act like a plastic container and stay around for a lot longer than intended.

So, while recognizing compostable items is a good first step, purchasing and using compostable items in place of other items has the biggest impact when they actually end up in a compost pile. Although, we do want to mention that the production of plastic is pretty nasty for a lot of reasons, so opting for compostable items made of cotton, bamboo, and even PLA (that vegetable based plastic cup you see at some restaurants now), is probably still better for the environment and your health.

Biodegradable

The dictionary definition of biodegradable is a substance that can break down naturally without causing any harm (1). This is very similar to compostable, but the biggest difference is that what it breaks down to doesn't cause harm as opposed to starting with an organically occurring materials. Therefore, man-made or chemically produced items can still be considered biodegradable, while not necessarily being compostable. This is like a square being a rectangle but a rectangle not being a square. Those items that are compostable are also biodegradable, but not everything biodegradable is compostable.

Again, biodegradable options are still a step in the right direction. It does mean that the ingredients break down over time (that's a perk) and when they do break down, the base components are not harmful to the environment (also a perk).

One drawback of biodegradable materials is that there is not necessarily a timeframe for when the items will break down. It could be many years before they start to degrade. In most cases, biodegradable isn't really saying much about the product. Think of it the same way you do products labeled "natural."

The bottom line

If we were to rank these terms for which ones are best for the planet and in turn our health, we'd say first look for items that are compostable, recyclable, and lastly biodegradable. Compostable items, if properly disposed of, will break down completely and can them be used to grow more resources. Recyclable items can be turned into raw materials that can then be used to make new things without needing to create completely new resources. And finally, biodegradable options will eventually break down, but we don't know when and there is no plan to use them for any additional benefit.

Of course, we are big proponents of reusing items when possible, but we also know that it can be incredibly hard to live your life without there being some items that needs to be disposed of. So, go on with this new information to help you think about what to toss and how to do it best.





References

  1. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biodegradable
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