Science

What’s the Deal with BPA?

And why am I seeing "BPA-free" stickers everywhere?

What is it?

BPA, or bisphenol A, is a chemical that is often used in plastics to make them clear and strong. It is also in epoxy resins that can line water pipes and food cans, and is used in receipt paper. Although BPA is the most well-known bisphenol, there are dozens of other bisphenols (often called BPA replacements) out there that are chemically similar to BPA. Many of them are used in the same way that BPA is and have very similar health effects. A common replacement is bisphenol S, or BPS.


What can it do to me?

BPA is a synthetic chemical that looks like estrogen to your body. It has been shown to screw with hormones including testosterone and thyroid hormones. Because of this, BPA has been tied to a large range of health problems like breast cancer, reduced sperm production, infertility, heart disease, early onset of puberty in girls, diabetes, and obesity (1). There is also concern about BPA's effect on brain and behavioral development in fetuses, infants and children (2, 3).

Where is this stuff?

BPA is all over the place. It is well known for being using in plastic containers like reusable water bottles and food storage containers. It is also frequently used in the lining of aluminum cans, like for canned beans, tomatoes, or soups. Other places BPA may be lurking is in receipt paper, electronics, dental sealants and orthodontic products, PVC, and sports safety equipment (think helmets, shin guards, wrist guards, etc.).

When products containing BPA, or any of the other BPA replacements, are heated, the chemicals can get into the food and water they are touching. This means it is more likely to leach into (leave the container and enter) food that is fatty - things like creamy and cheesy sauces or soups, meat, oily dips, leftover fries, and baby formula. It also leaches into acidic foods - like canned tomatoes, pineapple, and mandarin oranges.

How can I stay safe?

  1. Limit the amount of plastics that come into contact with food or water in your life. Try to choose glass, ceramic, or stainless steel food storage containers, water bottles, and baby bottles. Make sure any metal containers or bottles are not lined with resin (you can usually feel a waxy coating on the inside if they are). Remember, if a plastic product is marked "BPA-free" it is not necessarily safer: it is possible it contains a BPA alternative, such as BPS, which is chemically similar to BPA, and that scientists are starting to show have the same negative health effects.
  2. Avoid canned food as much as possible. If fresh produce isn't an option, frozen is better than canned (this article explains why). When you are looking for things like packaged tomatoes or fruit, look for options in glass jars or cartons - the papery boxes used for soups and other products.
  3. Never microwave in plastic! Microwaving makes it easier for the BPA to leave the container and get into your food. Instead, put your leftovers on a plate, then microwave them, and eat from the plate.
  4. Say no thanks to receipts. According to Johanna Rochester, PhD, Senior Scientist from The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, "BPA that coats the receipt paper is absorbed through the skin. If you need to keep them, store them in a ziploc bag, as BPA can transfer to your wallet, money, and purse. Do not let children play with receipts or put them in their mouths. If you work in the service industry, wash your hands often (do not use hand sanitizer, as this can increase absorption) and ask your employer to provide latex gloves."

The good news?

BPA is known to leave your system pretty quickly. This means that if you stop coming into contact with it, most of the BPA will be out of your system within a day or two. Making small changes really does add up!

Not so fast...

Although BPA leaves the body quickly, we are constantly being exposed to it. BPA is especially harmful for babies and pregnant women. These are both times in life that are considered "critical periods" because so much is changing and growing quickly.

"During this time, hormones send signals to the fetus or baby and direct how the cells and systems grow and develop. BPA can disrupt this signalling and can alter how cells develop and reprogram systems. This reprogramming can manifest as diseases or disorders when the child grows up. Some studies show that if pregnant women are exposed to endocrine disruptors like BPA, it can lead to obesity in their children," said Dr. Rochester.

What's crazier is that things happening to you can even affect your baby's baby.

"Exposure to BPA can also affect future generations--your grandchildren and even great-grandchildren. This is because all of the eggs of a baby girl are present before she is born, and BPA can affect her eggs through epigenetic changes--permanent changes in how a gene works that can be inherited over generations. This can also happen in males," explained Dr. Rochester.

So, these tips are even more important for women who are pregnant, couples trying to get pregnant, and parents with infants, and those who are breastfeeding.

1) vom Saal, F. S., & Vandenberg, L. N. (2021). Update on the Health Effects of Bisphenol A: Overwhelming Evidence of Harm. Endocrinology, 162 (bqaa171). https://doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqaa171

2) https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/materials/bisphen...

3) https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/ohat/bisphenol/bisph...

4)Pelch, K., Wignall, J. A., Goldstone, A. E., Ross, P. K., Blain, R. B., Shapiro, A. J., Holmgren, S. D., Hsieh, J.-H., Svoboda, D., Auerbach, S. S., Parham, F. M., Masten, S. A., Walker, V., Rooney, A., & Thayer, K. A. (2019). A scoping review of the health and toxicological activity of bisphenol A (BPA) structural analogues and functional alternatives. Toxicology, 424, 152235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2019.06.006

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Simple Homemade and Store Bought Organic Fertilizers

How to fertilize your garden without synthetic fertilizers

Spring is just around the corner and that means it's finally time to start planting that garden you have been thinking about all winter! One of the first things you might be thinking of is sprinkling some fertilizer on your seeds and starters to get a bumper crop or some extra large blooms. A lot of people think using synthetic fertilizers is the easiest choice to help your garden thrive, but in reality it's just a quick fix that will cause a lot of long term damage to your garden and the environment. Instead of using harsh chemicals on your beautiful garden, you should make the switch to organic fertilizers! Not only are organic fertilizers better for the environment and human health, you can also use a lot of the food scraps and things you have in your home to fertilize your garden. Super cost effective and so easy!

Why we shouldn't use synthetic fertilizers

When it comes to talking about synthetic fertilizers, it's best to start with what they are and what they are made of. Synthetic fertilizers are man-made products made from byproducts of the petroleum industry. Some examples of these fertilizers are Ammonium nitrate, Ammonium phosphate, superphosphate, and so many other variations (2). Because these fertilizers are made from petroleum products it means they are super energy intensive to produce and require the burning of fossil fuels to extract the specific chemicals. So basically fertilizers = fossil fuels = climate change! Eeek! (1).

In terms of fertilizing the plants and soil, synthetic fertilizers give the plants food in a readily available form, however, plants consume this food very rapidly and that means the fertilizer needs to be reapplied over and over again (3). The reason this type of fertilizer needs to be constantly reapplied is because they do absolutely nothing to improve the quality and health of the soil. Synthetic fertilizers provide nutrients for the plants but include no organic matter or nutrients that are required by the microorganisms in the soil to remain healthy. Moreover, synthetic fertilizers are known for killing microorganisms as soon as it's applied. These organisms are highly important because they break down organic matter and make the nutrients available for the plants to take up and grow (2). Without these important soil organisms, nothing would be able to grow and our soil would become unusable.

While synthetic fertilizers are extremely damaging to the biodiversity of our soil, they are also extremely toxic when they enter our waterways and drinking water. Because these chemical fertilizers need to be reapplied so often that means there is an excess quantity of them that can runoff when the plants are watered or it rains.This fertilizer runoff contributes to a process called eutrophication, which results in dead zones in bodies of water, because there is not enough oxygen available for the plants and animals living there. (5). Not only is this super dangerous for aquatic wildlife, this can also affect us. When waterways are polluted like this it's not safe for us to play or swim in and eventually these chemical nutrients can leach into the groundwater and cause serious health effects like gastric cancer, hypertension, and possible developmental issues in children (4).

As you can see using synthetic fertilizers isn't a great idea. They are super dangerous for the health of our environment and us. Thankfully there is an alternative that doesn't have so many nasty effects. That alternative is organic fertilizers!

Why organic alternatives are better

Like we mentioned before, in order to have a healthy garden and environment we need to have soil that's full of nutrients and microorganisms. This is where organic fertilizers shine. Organic fertilizers don't contain just nutrients, they contain organic matter that feeds the microorganisms and breaks down into nutrients over time. If you switch to organic fertilizers, not only would you be reducing your impact on the environment, you could also be growing organic fruits and vegetables at home in your own garden., Who doesn't want that?! Plus it's so simple. You can buy some organic fertilizers at the store or DIY some from food scraps you have at home.

Organic fertilizers you might have at home

Organic fertilizers come in a variety of different forms. Anywhere from food scraps from your fridge to bat guano extract. Most of the time there is no need to head to the store and buy a big bag of organic fertilizer. Instead, you could try using some things you already have at home. Check out some of the items we found that are great fertilizers for your gardens!

  • Food scraps and compost: We all have food scraps from fruits and veggies we don't eat or the food went bad before we could eat it. Food scraps or a homemade compost is a great organic fertilizer that would add a ton of nutrients to your garden! You can even add broken down cardboard in there. If you're thinking about starting a compost check out this article! (6)
  • Coffee grounds and tea leaves: Coffee grounds and tea leaves are great additions to your garden soil, however, because they can often be very acidic you want to use them sparingly and on plants that love acidic soil (6). Some plants that grow best in acidic soil are azaleas, rhododendrons, and blueberries.
  • Grass clippings and tree leaves: If you don't know what to do with all of the leaves you raked in your yard or all the grass clippings from your lawn, why don't you put them in your garden! Both of these items have super high levels of nitrogen and potassium that plants love (6).
  • Banana Peels: We all know bananas are a great source of potassium and that's true for our soil too! Dry your banana peels out and sprinkle them over your garden (6).
  • Seaweed: Seaweed is packed with tons of nutrients like potassium, nitrogen, phosphate, and magnesium. You can use it in its dried form or get a liquid form from your local garden center! (8)
  • Eggshells: I think we have all joked about eating some extra calcium in the morning when we accidentally get an eggshell in our breakfast. But instead of just throwing them away like you normally would, sprinkle them in your garden for some added calcium. Calcium is an important nutrient that helps plants absorb nutrients better (6).
  • Aquarium water (not salt water): If you have a fresh water fish tank and are looking for a way to dispose of your water, look no further. Aquarium water has a lot of nutrients that are beneficial for plants and a lot of the fish excrement is just extra nutrients for the soil! (7)
  • Fireplace ash: Fireplace ash is often used when the soil is too acidic. Ash has a higher pH, meaning it's more basic which will make the soil less acidic if added. Make sure you use this ash sparingly as too much is not so great for the plants. (7)

Organic Fertilizers you can buy

We also wanted to include some organic fertilizers that you can buy at a store. This is probably necessary if you have a huge space you want to fertilize. Some items we recommend to add to your soil that you can buy at many garden supply centers or nurseries are bone meal, worm castings, fish meal, compost, and animal manure. There are even companies where you can get compost (possibly for free) when you give them your food scraps. All of these products are super concentrated fertilizers that will help improve the quality of your soil. Some brands of organic fertilizer we recommend are: biolink, Dr.Earth, Jobe's Organics, and Down to Earth. If for some reason you can't find any of these brands in your nurseries or stores, it's best to contact your local nurseries and they usually have great recommendations for fertilizers they use and sell!


Sources

  1. https://www.bloombergquint.com/onweb/synthetic-fertilizer-ammonium-nitrate-makes-climate-change-worse#:~:text=After%20farmers%20apply%20these%20synthetic,or%20N2O%2C%20a%20greenhouse%20gas.&text=N2O%20has%20a%20far%20greater,more%20by%20weight%20as%20CO2.
  2. https://www.enviroingenuity.com/articles/synthetic-vs-organic-fertilizers.html#:~:text=Organic%20Fertilizers%20are%20materials%20derived%20from%20plant%20and%20animal%20parts%20or%20residues.&text=Synthetic%20Fertilizers%20are%20%E2%80%9CMan%20made,Plants%20require%2013%20nutrients.
  3. https://extension.oregonstate.edu/news/heres-scoop-chemical-organic-fertilizers
  4. Majumdar, D., & Gupta, N. (2000). Nitrate pollution of groundwater and associated human health disordersDeepanjan. Indian Journal of Environmental Health, 28-39. Retrieved February 26, 2021, from file:///Users/sophieboisseau/Downloads/Nitrate_pollution_of_groundwater_and_ass.pdf
  5. https://www.organicwithoutboundaries.bio/2018/10/31/synthetic-fertilizers/
  6. https://www.farmersalmanac.com/8-homemade-garden-fertilizers-24258
  7. https://thegrownetwork.com/15-simple-and-inexpensive-homemade-fertilizers/
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Roundups

PFAS and PVC Free Adult Rain Gear

Stay protected from the elements

As spring approaches, you may be thinking of upgrading your rain gear before the rainy season hits. Most rain gear can contain harmful chemicals like PFC/PFAS or PVC, which is not something you want on your body. PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) is a common plastic that is used in hundreds of places, but it's often used in rain gear to make it more waterproof. PVC on its own is not inherently toxic but it is extremely brittle, which is why phthalates are often added to make it stronger. Phthalates are harmful endocrine disruptors that have been linked to cancer, infertility, heart disease, and obesity.

The other group of chemicals that we want to steer away from is PFAS or PFC (i.e. Teflon-like chemicals). These chemicals have extremely tight bonds between the atoms, which means nothing can get past them. While this makes them great waterproofing agents, it also means these chemicals basically don't break down over time. These "forever chemicals" are also found in nonstick cookware, stain-resistant fabrics, and even take-out containers. Because these chemicals are found in so many common products they eventually end up in our environment polluting the water and soil and staying there forever. PFAS have been known to cause serious health problems like decreased fertility, increased cholesterol levels, harming the growth and development of children, and lowering immune system function.

That's why we found the best rain jackets and rain boots for adults! These boots and jackets are free from PFAS and PVC but will still keep you protected from the elements.



a) VAUDE Escape Light Rain Jacket

b) Marmot Phoenix EVODry Jacket

c) Jack Wolfskin Hardshell Jacket

d) Royal Robbins Switchform Waterproof Jacket

e) Joules Welly Print Rain Boot

f) Columbia OutDry Jacket

g) Tretorn Wings rain jacket

h) Western Chief Women's Printed Tall Waterproof Rain Boot

i) North Face Dryzzle FUTURELIGHT™ Jacket

j) VIKING Unisex Marine Kadett Boot

Roundups

PFAS and PVC Free Kids Rain Gear

Rain, rain, go away... unless you're wearing one of these jackets!

For most people, the arrival of spring also means the arrival of the rainy season. And if you have kids, and are having an increased number of outdoor playdates due to covid, you probably need to stock up on some new rain gear. Remember, there's no bad weather, just bad clothing! But before you go out and purchase just any rain gear, you should know that a lot of the common gear you see at the stores could be made with toxic chemicals.

The two chemicals that we want to steer clear of are PVC and PFAS. PVC or otherwise known as Polyvinyl Chloride is a super common plastic that is used in hundreds of places, but it's often used in rain gear to make it more waterproof. PVC on its own is not inherently toxic but it is extremely brittle, which is why phthalates are often added to make it stronger. Phthalates are harmful endocrine disruptors that have been linked to cancer, infertility, heart disease, and obesity.

The other group of chemicals that we want to steer away from is PFAS or PFC (i.e. Teflon-like chemicals). These chemicals have extremely tight bonds between the atoms, which means nothing can get past them. While this makes them great waterproofing agents, it also means these chemicals basically don't break down over time. These "forever chemicals" are also found in nonstick cookware, stain-resistant fabrics, and even take-out containers. Because these chemicals are found in so many common products they eventually end up in our environment polluting the water and soil and staying there forever. PFAS have been known to cause serious health problems like decreased fertility, increased cholesterol levels, harming the growth and development of children, and lowering immune system function.

I think it's pretty clear that it's best to stay away from any rain gear that uses these chemicals. They are not good for the planet, nor for your health. We definitely think PVC, PFAS (PFCs) need to be avoided, which is why we rounded up our favorite PVC and PFAS free kids rain gear so you don't have to worry this Spring!



a) RAINY DAYS KIDS This lightweight jacket is waterproof, windproof, and comes in a variety of fun colors and sizes for toddlers to preteens! It also has built in, high visibility reflectors for added safety.

b) Kids' PreCip Eco Jacket This waterproof jacket is ultra lightweight and breathable for all types of weather protection. Also it's made out of completely recycled materials!

c) JAN & JUL Girls' Fleece-Lined Rain Jacket for Toddler Kids, Water-Proof This jacket comes in a variety of prints and solid colors and is fleece lined to keep the kiddos warm no matter the weather. It also comes with reflective strips for some added safety!

d) Playshoes Childrens Waterproof Reflective Rain Jacket and pants These super cute raincoats and pants are heavier duty while also being breathable and easy to pack away. Plus, they're waterproof and windproof!

e) CeLaVi - Kids Rain Suit Reflective Waterproof 2 Pcs Jacket and Pants/or Dungarees This waterproof set comes with a jacket and pants for full protection from the rain. The set comes in a crazy amount of colors and has sizes from toddlers to age 10.

f) Hatley Boys' Printed Raincoats This rain jacket comes in so many fun prints your kids are guaranteed to love it! It also comes in sizes for toddlers to preteens and is super durable.

g) WATERPROOF SHELL JACKET Made from recycled materials, this jacket is fully sealed to create the ultimate waterproof jacket. Also because of the jacket's unique finish it makes it super easy to clean!

h) OAKI Rain & Trail Suit - Kid &Toddler - Girl & Boy One Piece Rain Jacket & Pant Not only does this one piece waterproof suit come in so many fun colors it is also guaranteed to keep you kids dry! It's great for the rain and the snow.





Roundups

PFC and PVC Free Kids Rain Boots

Puddles don't stand a chance against these wellies!

Spring is right around the corner, which means so is the rain! If you have kids, chances are you need to stock up on some new rain boots (how do kids grow so quickly?!). But a lot of rain boots you'd find in stores often are made with harmful chemicals like PVC and PFC. PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) is a common plastic that is used in hundreds of places, but it's often used in rain gear to make it more waterproof. PVC on its own is not inherently toxic but it is extremely brittle, which is why phthalates are often added to make it stronger. Phthalates are harmful endocrine disruptors that have been linked to cancer, infertility, heart disease, and obesity.

The other group of chemicals that we want to steer away from is PFAS or PFC (i.e. Teflon-like chemicals). These chemicals have extremely tight bonds between the atoms, which means nothing can get past them. While this makes them great waterproofing agents, it also means these chemicals basically don't break down over time. These "forever chemicals" are also found in nonstick cookware, stain-resistant fabrics, and even take-out containers. Because these chemicals are found in so many common products they eventually end up in our environment polluting the water and soil and staying there forever. PFAS have been known to cause serious health problems like decreased fertility, increased cholesterol levels, harming the growth and development of children, and lowering immune system function.

That's why we found the best kids rain boots that don't contain PFAS or PVC! These rain boots are seriously cute, come in lots of different sizes, and will keep feet dry! Check them out today!



a) Hatley Rain Boots

b) Joules Welly Print Rain Boot

c) L.L. Bean Kids' Wellies

d) Oaki Rain boots

e) Polarn O. Pyret Classic Stripe Rain Boots

f) Stonz Natural Rubber Rain Boot

Home

What’s a Rain Garden and How Do I Build One?

A guide to how rain gardens reduce water pollution and how to build one

What's a rain garden? Well, we're glad you asked! Rain gardens are not very well known but they are becoming more and more popular for their ability to reduce water pollution. The basic premise of a rain garden is that a basin filled with native plants captures water as it flows through your yard and filters out pollutants through the soil and plant roots before reentering the groundwater. Rain gardens are incredible, not only for being a great way to clean our water runoff, but they are aesthetically beautiful and create habitats for so much wildlife!

Keep reading to learn more about how rain gardens can purify water in your local ecosystem and how you can build one of your very own!

How Your Home Causes water pollution

When we think of water pollution we usually think of culprits like landfills, farming runoff, and industrial chemical waste. As it turns out, the runoff from different places at our homes are also a big part of the problem! Everytime it rains, water runs off surfaces like driveways, roofs, patios, and even our lawns. A lot of the time these surfaces can carry dirt particulates, chemicals, oils, garbage, and different types of bacteria and all of this can end up in our water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates that pollutants carried by rainwater runoff accounts for 70% of all water pollution (1).

It's also important to mention that this water runoff from our homes and other areas can make its way into nearby streams, lakes, oceans, and even our drinking water reservoirs (3). This is a major problem for the health of the surrounding wildlife and even us humans. A lot of the pollutants that are running off our driveways, roads, and roofs are toxic industrial chemicals and heavy metals from cars, as well as agricultural pesticides and waste. When these chemicals get into our water systems and the surrounding vegetation, animals eat the plants or drink the water and are exposed to many harmful chemicals that can cause a variety of health problems (7). When it comes to humans, the safety of our drinking water is a major concern. Thankfully we have water treatment plants to clean out the harmful chemicals and materials, however, there are still some chemicals and pesticides that are tricky to remove from our water sources. Water treatment plants do the best they can to remove most of the pollutants, but it is not a perfect process (8). Because of this, we can be exposed to these nasty pollutants through drinking contaminated water or when we play in our local lakes, streams, and beaches.

The good news is that we have the power to reduce the amount of water pollution that comes from our homes by planting a rain garden!

So what exactly are rain gardens?

A rain garden is a depressed area in the landscape filled with grasses and native plants that works to collect the runoff from all of the areas on your property. Not only does a rain garden collect all of the water runoff, it also helps filter out the pollutants collected along the way. This filtration process is done by using the plants and soil in the garden. As the water moves farther into the ground more of the contaminants are removed by the soil and plant roots and eventually the water will be able to recharge ground water aquifers. Sounds like a win win situation (1)!

Some of the other benefits of rain gardens include protection against floods and the habitat they provide. Water collects in the rain garden due to its lower elevation and acts as a drainage site for the diverted water. The water is then rapidly absorbed by the plants dramatically reducing the amount of water in your yard more efficiently after a storm (3)! This is where the plants in your rain gardens might differ slightly from your average garden plants. The most common plants used in rain gardens are able to tolerate long wet periods and long drought periods to be able to survive when there is rain and when there isn't (9). The plants have an added function as habitat for beneficial wildlife such as butterflies, bees, birds, and other small animals (4). Rain gardens protect our environment, our homes, our drinking water, and wildlife! Who wouldn't want that?

So... Do you want to build a rain garden?

We know this might seem a little daunting, but we promise it's easier than it looks and will be so worth it!

  1. Find a Location

The first step in creating the perfect rain garden is the planning phase. To pick a location for the rain garden many people conduct a rainy day survey. Is there a part of your yard that always collects water after a storm or where the soil stays extra wet for longer? That's a good place to start. You can also draw a rough map of your home and landmarks like trees, patios, and driveways, as well as how the water flows through your property when it rains. Typically areas with slight slopes or near gutter drain pipes are great places to plant a rain garden.Once you have picked a location that you believe will capture the most water runoff the next step is to determine the size you want your garden to be. Most rain gardens range from 150 - 480 sq ft and are at least 6 inches deep. Rain gardens can be really big or really small; design them to fit your needs and how much space you have available.

2. Pick Your Plants

The final step for planning is to pick your plants! When picking the plants for your rain garden you want to look for native perennial flowers, grasses, and shrubs that will survive in the amount of sunlight your rain garden is exposed to and the different weather patterns of where you live. The most common layout for plants in a rain garden is to have perennial flowers and natives that can tolerate lots of water in the center. Then around the center you want plants that can sometimes tolerate standing water but usually prefer to be dry like grasses, and finally around the edges use plants that prefer mostly dry soil (12). Talking with people from your local plant nurseries or just searching for native plants in your area can help you determine which plants will be best suited for your needs! (2) Some helpful online resources for native plants in your area and good plants for rain gardens are linked here!

3. Plant Your Rain Garden

Once you have completed all of the planning and preparation, the next step is to start digging. As we mentioned, a rain garden should be at least 6 inches deep for optimal water capture and drainage. Once you dig out your area make sure to create a gentle slope from the top to the center to help hold the water in. Once the area is prepared place your plants in the soil and pack them in. After planting, it is recommended that you place mulch over the top of the exposed soil to prevent weeds and to help with water drainage. This will save you a lot of time and energy down the line! The final step is to add any design elements like rocks and stones to the garden and water all of your plants in. Voila, you have a beautiful rain garden (5)!

If you need a slightly more in depth look at how to build your rain garden and different designs, we have added some links to help you out. Check out these links:

  1. https://www.gardeners.com/how-to/rain-garden/5712.html
  2. https://www.lawnstarter.com/blog/landscaping/how-build-rain-garden/
  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xuqmY7wzRc

References:

  1. https://www.groundwater.org/action/home/raingardens.html
  2. https://www.gardeners.com/how-to/rain-garden/5712.html
  3. https://thewatershed.org/green-infrastructure-rain-gardens/
  1. https://www.epa.gov/soakuptherain/soak-rain-rain-gardens
  2. https://www.lawnstarter.com/blog/landscaping/how-build-rain-garden/
  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xuqmY7wzRc
  4. Gaffield, S. J., Goo, R. L., Richards, L. A., & Jackson, R. J. (2003). Public Health Effects of Inadequately Managed Stormwater Runoff. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1527–1533. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1527
  5. https://www.iwapublishing.com/news/distillation-treatment-and-removal-contaminants-drinking-water
  6. https://www.embassylandscape.com/blog/the-best-of-the-best-perennial-plants-for-rain-gardens
  7. https://www.nwf.org/NativePlantFinder/
  8. http://raingardenalliance.org/planting/plantlist
  9. https://www.almanac.com/content/rain-gardens-two-d...:~:text=Planting%20a%20Rain%20Garden&text=Most%20of%20the%20plants%20in,that%20tolerate%20occasional%20standing%20water.
Food

Canned Coffee is Convenient, But What About BPA?

Why they should be a treat instead of part of your daily routine

Now that we're all working from home, it's easy to get bored of our everyday homemade coffee routine. Sometimes we just want something different to wake us up in the morning or even a quick pick me up in the afternoon! That's where canned coffee comes into play. It's quick, convenient, and comes in a ton of flavors. But that convenience might come at a cost; there's been concerns surrounding the use of BPA in the lining of canned products. So, does canned coffee pose a risk to health? We looked at the research to find out.

The Problem With BPA in Cans

BPA, or bisphenol A, is a synthetic chemical that acts like estrogen in our bodies and it has been known to screw with important hormones like testosterone and thyroid hormones. Some of the common health problems associated with BPA include breast cancer, reduced sperm production, obesity, reproductive issues, disruption of brain development and function, and damaging effects to the liver (1). To make matters worse, there is more and more scientific evidence that even very low doses of BPA exposure can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and babies. Low doses of BPA exposure have been tied to abnormal liver function, chronic inflammation of the prostate, cysts on the thyroid and pituitary gland, and many more serious health effects during the early stages of life (5).

Even though BPA is definitely not a chemical we want to be exposed to, it's found basically everywhere, including our food. One common place to find BPA is the internal lining of canned foods or beverages. BPA can help prevent corrosion between the metal and the food or drink inside a can, but over time (or if stored under the wrong conditions like high temperatures), it can start to leach out and get into the food or drink (2). Even cans that say BPA free can have nasty BPA alternatives that have been shown to have similar hormone disrupting effects (7).

Studies have shown that canned soft drinks, beers, and energy drinks all had small traces of BPA in them. Beer was found with the highest concentration of BPA, followed by energy drinks. Soft drinks were found to have the lowest concentration of BPA. In order to find out where BPA in these drinks was coming from, researchers compared the canned drinks to the same drinks packaged in glass bottles. They found very little to no traces of BPA in the glass bottled drinks, which means that the source of BPA in the canned drinks was definitely coming from the cans themselves (2,3,4).

Even if there are only small traces of leachable BPA, it can still be harmful if we are consuming canned products on a regular basis.

Is Canned Coffee Safe?

With the recent increase in popularity of cold brew and other canned coffee drinks, there have not been extensive studies on BPA levels in canned coffee. However, one study of canned coffee drinks in Asia, where they have been popular for longer, did find that BPA was leaching into the coffee from the can. Interestingly, they also found that the more caffeine was in the coffee, the more BPA leached from the can into the drink. Meaning the more caffeine, the more BPA! (4,6) Now before you think you can get away with only drinking decaf canned coffee, keep in mind that caffeine only increases the leaching from the can, but it can still happen without it (6).

Even though the levels of BPA found in canned coffee were relatively small, because BPA is all around us in so many common products, we should try to limit our exposure as much as we can. This means that it's probably okay to drink a canned coffee every once in a while, but best practice is to not drink them every day. But if you're in the middle of a road trip and are desperate for some energy, don't get too stressed about grabbing a canned coffee!

Canned Coffee Alternatives

If you're starting to get worried about what coffee to buy when you're out and about or when you want something more than just plain coffee, don't stress! We thought of some easy and fun alternatives for your canned coffee fix that might make you forget all about it!

  1. Swap out the canned coffee for coffee in a glass bottle or tetrapaks whenever possible.
  2. Find some fun new ways to make coffee at home like using a Chemex or a nice French press!
  3. Go get a coffee at your local coffee shop. Support small businesses if you can!
  4. If you like canned coffee because of the flavors, try making your own caramel or mocha sauce at home. It's pretty easy and it saves money! For something icy and refreshing, we are partial to muddling some fresh mint with some cold brew.


References

vom Saal, F. S., & Vandenberg, L. N. (2021). Update on the Health Effects of Bisphenol A: Overwhelming Evidence of Harm. Endocrinology, 162(bqaa171). https://doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqaa171 (1)

Cao, X.-L., Corriveau, J., & Popovic, S. (2010). Sources of Low Concentrations of Bisphenol A in Canned Beverage Products. Journal of Food Protection, 73(8), 1548–1551. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-73.8.1548 (2)

Determination of BPA, BPB, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE in canned energy drinks by molecularly imprinted polymer cleaning up and UPLC with fluorescence detection. (2017). Food Chemistry, 220, 406–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.005 (3)

Kang, J.-H., & Kondo, F. (2002). Bisphenol A migration from cans containing coffee and caffeine. Food Additives and Contaminants, 19(9), 886–890. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030210147278 (4)

Prins, G. S., Patisaul, H. B., Belcher, S. M., & Vandenberg, L. N. (2019). CLARITY-BPA academic laboratory studies identify consistent low-dose Bisphenol A effects on multiple organ systems. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 125(S3), 14–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.13125 (5)

Kang, J.-H., & Kondo, F. (2002). Bisphenol A migration from cans containing coffee and caffeine. Food Additives and Contaminants, 19(9), 886–890. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030210147278 (6)

Pelch, K., Wignall, J. A., Goldstone, A. E., Ross, P. K., Blain, R. B., Shapiro, A. J., Holmgren, S. D., Hsieh, J.-H., Svoboda, D., Auerbach, S. S., Parham, F. M., Masten, S. A., Walker, V., Rooney, A., & Thayer, K. A. (2019). A scoping review of the health and toxicological activity of bisphenol A (BPA) structural analogues and functional alternatives. Toxicology, 424, 152235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2019.06.006 (7)

Roundups

Non-Toxic Hair Gel for Men

Get the perfect tousled look without the unnecessary chemicals

Whether you use gel every day or just on special date nights, getting the perfect 'do shouldn't introduce a slew of crazy chemicals to your hair. So, we poured over the databases to find which companies are creating some non-toxic hair gel options. Then, we made sure you could actually get your hands on them and that they got good reviews before collecting them into our final roundup.


a) Free and Clear hairstyling gel

b) Reverie Rake Styling Balm

c) Original Sprout Hair Gel

d) Shea Moisture virgin coconut oil daily hydration styling cream

e) Innersense Whipped Creme Texturizer

f) Rahua Hair Wax

g) Josh Rosebrook Styling Cream

h) Badger Hair pomade

i) John Masters Organics Sculpting Clay

We rely on EWG's consumer databases, the Think Dirty App, Made Safe, and GoodGuide in addition to consumer reviews and widespread availability of products to generate these recommendations. Learn more on our methodology page.

*Because Health is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program so that when you click through our Amazon links, a percentage of the proceeds from your purchases will go to Because Health. We encourage you to shop locally, but if you do buy online buying through our links will help us continue the critical environmental health education work we do. Our participation does not influence our product recommendations. To read more about how we recommend products, go to our methodology page.

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